The idea of a hospital for Caraquet was born in 1957. At that time, the region lacked health care services. In winter, a snowplow or even a snowmobile had to be used to transport seriously ill patients to Tracadie.
A hospital committee was founded on April 21, 1958, and became a non-profit corporation in July of the same year. The people of Caraquet showed their support by agreeing to have the town incorporated so that it could borrow over $800,000 to construct the hospital. The Religious Hospitallers of Saint Joseph took over responsibility, despite their initial reticence. The following year, the village council changed and the Religious Hospitallers had a new provincial council; negotiations had to start over from scratch.
The provincial government later approved the project and committed to invest $307,000, but it refused to pay the interest and depreciation on the hospital. On the recommendation of the Minister of Health, Dr. Georges-L. Dumont, steps were taken to incorporate an area of the Caraquet Parish into a municipality. The town was incorporated on November 15, 1961. On February 24, 1962, the new municipality made several formal commitments, including funding 60% of the hospital’s annual capital costs.
The 55-bed hospital was inaugurated during the first Acadian Festival in Caraquet on August 15, 1963, National Acadian Day.
Unlike most hospitals founded by the Religious Hospitallers, the one in Caraquet does not bear the name Hôtel-Dieu. Mother Violette chose the name Enfant Jésus because it was after a novena to the Child Jesus, with a promise to honour His name, that she obtained permission to take over responsibility for the hospital.
In 1983, the hospital underwent major renovations. In 1989, it had 15 physicians.
From 1991 to 1994, the hospital was partly renovated and work costing $9.7 million was done on a 3,700 m² expansion.
From 2004 to 2008, the hospital served as a community health centre, but it regained its hospital status in 2008.